Book: Media Exposure During Infancy and Early Childhood

Barr, R., & Linebarger, D. N. (Eds.). (2017). Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: the effects of content and context on learning and development (1st ed., Vol. 1). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45102-2

Choosing Media with Young Children

Barr, R., Kirkorian, H., Radesky, J., et al. (2020). Beyond Screen Time: A Synergistic Approach to a More Comprehensive Assessment of Family Media Exposure During Early Childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1283.

Radesky, J.S., Weeks, H.M., Ball, R., et al. (2020). Young Children’s Use of Smartphones and Tablets. Pediatrics, 146(1).

McClure, E., Chentsova- Dutton, Y., Barr, R., Holochwost, S., Parrott, G. (2016). “Facetime doesn’t count”: Video chat an exception to media restrictions for infants and toddlers. International Journal of Child- Computer Interaction, 6, 1-6.

Bank, A.M., Barr, R., Calvert, S.L., Parrott, W.G., McDonough, S.C., & Rosenblum, K. (2011). Maternal depression and family media use: A questionnaire and diary analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies

Barr, R., Danziger, C., Hilliard, M.E., Andolina, C., & Ruskis, J. (2010). Amount, content and context of infant media exposure: a parental questionnaire and diary analysis. International Journal of Early Years Education, 18(2), 107-122.

Fenstermacher, S., Barr, R., Brey, E., Pempek, T.A., Ryan, M., Calvert, S.L., Shwery, C.E. & Linebarger, D. (2010). Interaction quality depicted in infant and toddler videos: Where are the Interactions? Infant and Child Development, 19, 594-612.

Fenstermacher, S., Barr, R., Salerno, K., Garcia, A., Shwery, C.E., Calvert, S.L. & Linebarger, D.L. (2010). Infant directed media: An analysis of product information and claims. Infant and Child Development, 19, 557-576.

Vaala, S.E., Linebarger, D.L., Fenstermacher, S.K., Tedone, A., Brey, E., Barr, R., Moses, A., Shwery, C.E., & Calvert, S.L. (2010). Content analysis of language – Promoting teaching strategies used in infant-directed media. Infant and Child Development, 19, 628-648.

Calvert, S. L., Rideout, V.J., Woolard, J.L., Barr, R.F., Strouse, G.A. (2005). Age, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Patterns in Early Computer Use: A National Survey. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(5), 590-607. and Child Development, 19, 553-556.

Learning from the Media

Barr, R., McClure, E., Parlakian, R. (2019). Maximizing the potential for learning from screen experiences in early childhood. Zero to Three, 29-36.

Learmonth, A.E., Lui, M., Barr, R., Gerhardstein, P. (2019). Comparison of Imitation From Screens Between Typically Developing Preschoolers and Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 18(2), 108-130.

Barr, R., McClure, E., & Palarkian, R. (2019). Maximizing the potential for learning from screen experiences in early childhood: What the research says. Zero to Three, 29-36.

Barr, R. (2019). Growing up in the digital age: Early learning and family media ecology. Current Directions in Psychological Science,1-6.

Zimmermann, L., Moser, A., Lee, H., Gerhardstein, P., & Barr, R. (2016). The ghost in the touchscreen: Social scaffolds promote learning by toddlers. Child Development, 1-13.

Moser, A., Zimmermann, L., Dickerson, K., Grenell, A., Barr, R., & Gerhardstein, P. (2015). They can interact, but can they learn? Toddlers’ transfer learning from touchscreens and television. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 137, 137-155.

Zimmermann, L., Moser, A., Grenell, A., Dickerson, K., Yao, Q., Gerhardstein, P., & Barr, R. (2015). Do semantic contextual cues facilitate transfer learning from video in toddlers? Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-12.

Barr, R. (2013). Memory Constraints on Infant Learning From Picture Books, Television, and Touchscreens. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 205-210.

Barr, R., Brito, N., Simcock, G. (2013). Revisiting the effect of reminders on infants’ media memories: Does the encoding format matter?. Developmental Psychology, 49 (11), 2112-2119.

Dickerson, K., Gerhardstein, P., Zack, E. & Barr, R. (2013). Age-related Changes in Learning Across Early Childhood: A New Imitation Task. Developmental Psychobiology.

Zack, E., Gerhardstein, P., Meltzoff, A. N., & Barr, R. (2013). 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning between touch screen and real-world displays: language cues and cognitive loads. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 54, 20-25.

Barr, R. & Rovee-Collier, C. (2012). Learning from television in early childhood. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_1835

Brito N., Barr R., McIntyre P., Simcock G., (2012). Long-term transfer of learning from books and television. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 108-119.

Simcock G., Garrity K., Barr R. (2011). The effect of narrative cues on infants’ imitation from television and picture books. Child Development, 82(5), 1607-1619.

Barr R. (2010). Transfer of learning between 2D and 3D sources during infancy: Informing theory and practice. Developmental Review, 30, 128-154.

Barr R., Shuck L., Salerno K., Atkinson E., Linebarger D. L. (2010). Music interferes with learning from television during infancy. Infant and Child Development, 19, 313-331.

Lauricella A.R., Pempek T.A., Barr R., Calvert S.L. (2010). Contingent computer interactions for young children’s objective retrieval success. The Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 362-369.

Vandewater, E.A., Barr R., Park S.E. & Lee S-J (2010). A US study of transfer of learning from video to books in toddlers’ matching words across context change. Journal of Children and Media, 4(4), 451-467.

Barr R., Wyss N., Somanader M. (2009). The influence of electronic sound effects on learning from televised and live models. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103, 1-16.

Zack E., Barr R., Gerhardstein P., Dickerson K., Meltzoff A.N (2009). Infant imitation from television using novel touch screen technology. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 13-26.

Barr, R. (2008). Attention to and learning from media during infancy and early childhood. Blackwell Handbook of Child Development and the Media, 143-165.

Barr, R. & Wyss, N. (2008). Reenactment of televised content by 2-year-olds: Toddlers use language learned from television to solve a difficult imitation problem. Infant Behavior and Development, 31(4), 696-703.

Barr, R., Muentener, P. & Garcia, A (2007). Age-related changes in deferred imitation from television by 6- to 18-month-olds. Developmental Science, 10(6), 910-921.

Barr R., Muentener P., Garcia A., Fujimoto M., Chavez, V. (2007). The effect of repetition on imitation from television during infancy. Developmental Psychobiology, 49(2), 196–207.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H. (1999).  Developmental changes in imitation from television during infancy.  Child Development, 70, 1067-1081.

Using Media with Young Children

Strouse, G.A., McClure, E., Myers, L.J., Zosh, J.M., Troseth, G.L., Blanchfield, O., Roche, E., Malik, S., Barr, R. (2021). Zooming through development: Using video chat to support family connections. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 1-20.

Konrad, C., Hillmann, M., Rispler, J., Niehaus, L., Neuhoff, L. & Barr, R. (2021)  Quality of Mother-Child Interaction Before, During, and After Smartphone Use. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Bellagamba, F., Presaghi, F., Di Marco, M., D’Abundo, E., Blanchfield, O. & Barr, R. (2021). How Infant and Toddlers’ Media Use Is Related to Sleeping Habits in Everyday Life in Italy, Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Sundqvist, A., Koch, F-S., Birberg Thornberg, U., Barr, R. & Heimann, M. (2021). Growing Up in a Digital World – Digital Media and the Association With the Child’s Language Development at Two Years of Age, Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Konrad, C., Berger-Hanke, M., Hassel, G., Barr, R. (2021). Does texting interrupt imitation learning in 19-month-old infants? Infant Behavior and Development, 62.

Ribner, A.D., Barr, R.F., Nichols, D.L. (2021). Background media use is negatively related to language and literacy skills: indirect effects of self-regulation. Pediatric Research, 89, 1523-1529.

Barr, R., Blanchfield, O., McClure, E., Roche, E., Zosh, J.M., Strouse, G.A., Troseth, G.L., Myers, L.J. (2020). Virtual Family Time: How Families Connect via Video Chat. ZERO TO THREE Journal, 21-29.

McClure, E., Chentsova-Dutton, Y., Holochwost, S., Parrott, W., Barr, R. (2020). Infant emotional engagement in face-to-face and video chat interactions with their mothers. Enfance, 3(3), 353-374.

Zack, E., & Barr, R. (2016).The role of interactional quality in learning from touch screens during infancy: Context matters. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-13.

Lauricella, A., Barr, R., & Calvert, S. (2014). Parent-child interactions during traditional and computer storybook reading for children’s comprehension: Implications for electronic storybook design. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 1-9.

Linebarger, D., Barr, R., Lapierre, M.,& Piotrowski, J. (2014). Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 35, 367-377.

Linebarger, D.L., Barr, R., Lapierre, M.A., & Piotrowski, J.T. (2014). Associations Between Parenting, Media Use, Cumulative Risk, and Children’s Executive Functioning. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35, 367-377.

Fidler, A.E., Zack, E., Barr, R. (2010). Television viewing patterns in 6- to 18- Month-Olds: The role of caregiver – Infant Interactional Quality. Infancy, 13, 30-56.

Lauricella, A.R., Barr, R.F. & Calvert, S.L. (2009). Emerging computer skills: Influences of young children’s executive functioning abilities and parental scaffolding. Journal of Children and Media, 3(3), 217-233.

Barr, R., Zack, E., Garcia, A., Muentener, P. (2008). Infants’ attention and responsiveness to television increases with prior exposure and parental interaction. Infancy, 13(1), 30-56.

Studies of Bilingualism

Byers-Heinlein, K., Tsui, R.K-Y., van Renswoude, D., et al. (2020). The development of gaze following in monolingual and bilingual infants: A multi-laboratory study. Infancy, 26, 4-38.

Barr, R., Rusnak, S.N., Brito, N.H., Nugent, C. (2020). Actions speak louder than words: Differences in memory flexibility between monolingual and bilingual 18-month-olds. Developmental Science, 23.

Brito, N., Murphy, E., Vaiyda, C., Barr, R. (2015). Do bilingual advantages in attentional control influence memory encoding during a divided attention task?. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 1-9.

Barr, R., Brito, N., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2014). Differences in language exposure and its effects on memory flexibility in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual infants. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1-13.

Barr, R., Brito, N., & Grenell, A. (2014). Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-12.

Brito, N., & Barr, R. (2013). Flexible memory retrieval in bilingual 6-month-old infants. Developmental psychobiology, 56(5), 1156–1163. doi: 10.1002/dev.21188.

Brito, N., & Barr, R. (2012). Influence of bilingualism on memory generalization during infancy.Developmental Science, 15, 812-816. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.1184.x

The Just Beginning "Baby Elmo" Program

King, S. M., Ayasse, H., Mikytuck, A., Barr, R. F., Woolard, J. F., & Harrak, T. (2019). The intersection of juvenile justice and early childhood: How to maximize family engagement. Florida Law Review Forum, Vol 71(1), 88-103.

Richeda B., Barr R., Cowan P., Cowan C., Rodriguez J., Shauffer C., Smith K., Perkins E. & Simmons S. (2015). Baby Elmo leads dads back to the nursery: How a relationship-based intervention for fathers enhances father and child outcomes. Zero To Three, 35(5), 25-35.

King S., Barr R., & Woolard J. (2015). Cost-effective juvenile justice reform: Lessons from the Just Beginning “Baby Elmo” teen parenting program. 93 N.C.L Rev 1381-1418.

Barr R., Morin, M., Brito N., Richeda, B., Rodriguez J., & Shauffer C. (2013). Delivering services to incarcerated teen fathers: A pilot intervention to increase the quality of father-infant interactions during visitation. Psychological Services, 11(1), 10-21.

Brito N., Barr R., Rodriguez J., & Shauffer C. (2012). Developing an Effective Intervention for Incarcerated Teen Fathers: The Baby Elmo Program. Zero to Three, 32(5), 26-32.

Barr R., Brito N., Zocca J., Reina S., Rodriguez J., Shauffer C. (2011). The baby elmo program: Improving teen father-child interactions within juvenile justice facilities. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(9), 1555-1562.

Learning in the Social World

Spiedel, R., Zimmermann, L., Green, L., Brito, N.H., Subiaul, F., Barr, R. (2020). Optimizing imitation: Examining cognitive factors leading to imitation, overimitation, and goal emulation in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 203.

Nyberg, S., Rudner, M., Birberg Thornberg, U., Koch, F.S., Barr, R., Heimann, M., Sundqvist, A. (2020). The Natural Language Environment of 9-Month-Old Infants in Sweden and Concurrent Association with Early Language Development. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

Zimmerman, L., Frank, H.E., Subiaul, F., Barr, R. (2020). Applying computational modeling to assess age-, sex-, and strategy-related differences in Spin the Pots, a working memory task for 2- to 4-year-olds. Developmental Psychobiology, 1-12.

Brito, N. H., Fifer, W. P., Amso, D., Barr, R., Bell, M. A., Calkins, S.,…Colombo, J. (2019). Beyond the Bayley: Neurocognitive assessments of development during infancy and toddlerhood. Developmental Neuropsychology, 1-29.  

Moser, A., Olsen, S., Rusnak, S.N., Barr, R., Gerhardstein, P. (2018). How self-generated labelling shapes transfer of learning during early childhood: The role of individual differences. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1-16.

Barr, R., Moser, A., Rusnak, S., Zimmermann, L. Dickerson, K., Lee, H., & Gerhardstein, P. (2016). The impact of memory load and perceptual cues on puzzle learning by 24-month olds. Developmental Psychobiology, 58, 817-828.

Subiaul, F., Zimmermann, L., Renner, E., Schilder, B., & Barr, R. (2016). Defining elemental imitation mechanisms: A comparison of cognitive and motor-spatial imitation learning across object- and computer-based tasks. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17(2): 221-243.

Angal, J., Barr, R., Brito, N., Elliott, A., Engelhardt, L., Fifer, W., … Mack, L. (2015). Socioeconomic disparities in neurocognitive development in the first two years of life. Developmental Psychobiology, 1-17.

Subiaul, F., Patterson, E., Barr, R. (2015). The cognitive structure of goal emulation during the preschool years. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34, 1-18.

Subiaul, F., Patterson, E., Schilder, B., Renner, E., Barr, R. (2014). Becoming a high- fidelity-super-imitator: What are the contributions of social and individual learning?. Developmental Science, 1-11.

Barr, R. (2006). Developing social understanding in a social context.  In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds).  Blackwell Handbook of Early Child Development,( pp188-207).  Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H. (2003). It’s not what you know it’s who you know: Older siblings facilitate imitation during infancy.  International Journal of Early Years Education, 11, 7-21.

Hayne, H., Barr, R., & Herbert J. (2003).  The effect of prior practice on memory reactivation and generalization.  Child Development, 74, 1615-1627.

Barr, R. (2002).  Imitation as a learning mechanism and research tool: how does imitation interact with other cognitive functions? Developmental Science, 5, 16-18.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H. (2000). Age-related changes in imitation: Implications for memory development.  In C. Rovee-Collier, L. P. Lipsitt, & H. Hayne (Eds.), Progress in infancy research(Vol. 1, pp. 21-67).  Mahwah, NJ:  Erlbaum.

Hayne, H., Boniface, J., & Barr, R. (2000). The development of declarative memory in human infants: Age-related changes in deferred imitation.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 77-83. DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.114.1.77.

Hayne, H., MacDonald, S., & Barr, R. (1997). Developmental changes in the specificity of memory over the second year of life.  Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 233-245.

Barr, R., Dowden, A., & Hayne, H. (1996). Developmental changes in deferred imitation by 6- to 24-month-old infants.  Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 159-171.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H. (1996). The effect of event structure on imitation in infancy:  Practice makes perfect?  Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 255-259.

Making The Connection

Koch, F-S., Sundqvist, A., Birberg Thornberg, U., Ullman, M.T., Barr, R., Rudner, M., Heimann, M. (2020). Data and analysis script for infant and adult eye movement in an adapted ocular-motor serial reaction time task assessing procedural memory. Data in Brief, 29.

Koch, F-S., Sundqvist, A., Birberg Thornberg, U., Nyberg, S., Lum, J.A.G., Ullman, M.T., Barr, R., Rudner, M., Heimann, M. (2020). Procedural memory in infancy: Evidence from implicit sequence learning in an eye-tracking paradigm. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 191.

King, S.M., Ayasse, H., Mikytuck, A., Barr, R.F., Woolard, J.F., Harrak, T. (2019). The Intersection of Juvenile Justice and Early Childhood: How to Maximize Family Engagement. Florida Law Review Forum, 71(1), 88-103.

Subiaul, F., Patterson, E.M., Zimmermann, L., Barr, R. (2019). Only domain-specific imitation practice makes imitation perfect. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 177, 248-264.

Barr, R. & Rovee-Collier, C. (2012). Infant Learning and Memory. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_1918

Barr, R., Rovee-Collier, C. & Learmonth, A. E. (2011). Potentiation in Young Infants: The Origin of the Prior Knowledge Effect?  Memory and Cognition,39, 625-636. DOI 10.3758/s13421-010-0037-0

Rovee-Collier, C., & Barr, R. (2010). Infant learning and memory. Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development (2nd ed.), 271-294.

Barr, R., Rovee-Collier, C. & Campanella, J. (2005). Retrieval protracts deferred imitation by 6-month-olds. Infancy, 7, 263-284.

Barr, R., Marrott, H., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2003). The role of sensory preconditioning in memory retrieval by preverbal infants.  Learning and Behavior, 31, 111-123.

Barr, R., Vieira, A., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2002). Bidirectional priming in infants.  Memory and Cognition, 30, 246-255.

Barr, R., Vieira, A., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2001).  Mediated imitation in 6-month-olds:  Remembering by association.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79, 229-252.