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Learning and Memory

Learning in a Social World: Imitation

Brito, N., & Barr, R. (2012). Influence of bilingualism on memory generalization during infancy. Developmental Science, 15, 812-816. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.1184.x
Video abstract

Barr, R. (2006). Developing social understanding in a social context.  In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds).  Blackwell Handbook of Early Child Development,( pp188-207).  Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Barr, R. (2005). Imitation. N. J. Salkind & K. DeRuyck (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Human Development. Sage Publications. Toledo, OH, p. 673-675.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H.  (2003). It’s not what you know it’s who you know: Older siblings facilitate imitation during infancy.  International Journal of Early Years Education, 11, 7-21.

Hayne, H., Barr, R., & Herbert J. (2003).  The effect of prior practice on memory reactivation and generalization.  Child Development, 74, 1615-1627.

Barr, R.  (2002).  Imitation as a learning mechanism and research tool: how does imitation interact with other cognitive functions? Developmental Science, 5, 16-18.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H.  (2000). Age-related changes in imitation: Implications for memory development.  In C. Rovee-Collier, L. P. Lipsitt, & H. Hayne (Eds.), Progress in infancy research (Vol. 1, pp. 21-67).  Mahwah, NJ:  Erlbaum.

Hayne, H., Boniface, J., & Barr, R.  (2000). The development of declarative memory in human infants: Age-related changes in deferred imitation.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 77-83. DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.114.1.77.

Hayne, H., MacDonald, S., & Barr, R.  (1997). Developmental changes in the specificity of memory over the second year of life.  Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 233-245.

Barr, R., Dowden, A., & Hayne, H.  (1996). Developmental changes in deferred imitation by 6- to 24-month-old infants.  Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 159-171.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H.  (1996). The effect of event structure on imitation in infancy:  Practice makes perfect?  Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 255-259.

Making Connections

Barr, R. & Rovee-Collier, C. (2012). Infant Learning and Memory. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_1918

Barr, R., Rovee-Collier, C. & Learmonth, A. E. (2011). Potentiation in Young Infants: The Origin of the Prior Knowledge Effect?  Memory and Cognition,39, 625-636. DOI 10.3758/s13421-010-0037-0

Rovee-Collier, C., & Barr, R. (2010). Infant learning and memory. Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development (2nd ed.), 271-294.

Barr, R., Rovee-Collier, C. & Campanella, J. (2005). Retrieval protracts deferred imitation by 6-month-olds. Infancy, 7, 263-284.

Barr, R., Marrott, H., & Rovee-Collier, C.  (2003). The role of sensory preconditioning in memory retrieval by preverbal infants.  Learning and Behavior, 31, 111-123.

Barr, R., Vieira, A., & Rovee-Collier, C.   (2002). Bidirectional priming in infants.  Memory and Cognition, 30, 246-255.

Barr, R., Vieira, A., & Rovee-Collier, C.  (2001).  Mediated imitation in 6-month-olds:  Remembering by association.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79, 229-252.

Factors that influence learning from television


Barr R., Muentener P., Garcia A., Fujimoto M., Chavez, V. (2007). The effect of repetition on imitation from television during infancy. Developmental Psychobiology, 49(2), 196–207.

Barr R., Muentener P. & Garcia A (2007). Age-related changes in deferred imitation from television by 6- to 18-month-olds. Developmental Science, 10(6), 910-921.

Music and Sound Effects

Barr R., Shuck L., Salerno K., Atkinson E., Linebarger D. L. (2010). Music interferes with learning from television during infancy. Infant and Child Development, 19, 313-331.

Barr R., Wyss N., Somanader M. (2009). The influence of electronic sound effects on learning from televised and live models. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103, 1-16.

Language Cues

Vandewater, E.A., Barr R., Park S.E. & Lee S-J (2010). A US study of transfer of learning from video to books in toddlers’ matching words across context change. Journal of Children and Media, 4(4), 451-467.

Barr R. & Wyss N. (2008). Reenactment of televised content by 2-year-olds: Toddlers use language learned from television to solve a difficult imitation problem. Infant Behavior and Development, 31(4), 696-703.


Dickerson, K., Gerhardstein, P., Zack, E. & Barr, R. (in press). Age-related Changes in Learning Across Early Childhood: A New Imitation Task. Developmental Psychobiology.


Barr, R. & Brito, N. (2012). Learning from television in young children. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_1835

Barr R. (2010). Transfer of learning between 2D and 3D sources during infancy: Informing theory and practice. Developmental Review, 30, 128-154.

Barr, R. (2008). Attention to and learning from media during infancy and early childhood. Blackwell Handbook of Child Development and the Media, 143-165.

Barr, R., & Hayne, H.  (1999).  Developmental changes in imitation from television during infancy.  Child Development, 70, 1067-1081.

Content analysis of infant-directed media

Barr R. & Linebarger (2010). Special issue on the content and context of early media exposure. Infant and Child Development, 19, 553-556.

Fenstermacher S., Barr R., Salerno K., Garcia A., Shwery C.E., Calvert S.L. & Linebarger D.L. (2010). Infant directed media: An Analysis of Product Information and Claims. Infant and Child Development, 19, 557-576.

Fenstermacher S., Barr R., Brey E., Pempek T.A., Ryan M., Calvert S.L., Shwery C.E. & Linebarger D. (2010). Interaction quality depicted in infant and toddler videos: Where are the Interactions? Infant and Child Development, 19, 594-612.

Vaala S.E., Linebarger D.L., Fenstermacher S.K., Tedone A., Brey E., Barr R., Moses A., Shwery C.E., & Calvert S.L. (2010). Content analysis of language – Promoting teaching strategies used in infant-directed media. Infant and Child Development, 19, 628-648.

Learning from books, touchscreens and computers during early childhood

Zack, E., Gerhardstein, P., Meltzoff, A. N., & Barr, R. (2013). 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning between touch screen and real-world displays: language cues and cognitive loads. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.

Brito N., Barr R., McIntyre P., Simcock G., (2012). Long-term transfer of learning from books and television. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 108-119.

Simcock G., Garrity K., Barr R. (2011). The effect of narrative cues on infants’ imitation from television and picture books. Child Development, 82(5), 1607-1619.

Lauricella A.R., Pempek T.A., Barr R., Calvert S.L. (2010). Contingent computer interactions for young children’s objective retrieval success. The Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 362-369.

Zack E., Barr R., Gerhardstein P., Dickerson K., Meltzoff A.N (2009). Infant imitation from television using novel touch screen technology. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 13-26.

Exposure to media during early childhood

Bank A.M., Barr R., Calvert S.L., Parrott W.G., McDonough S.C., Rosenblum K. (2011). Maternal depression and family media use: A questionnaire and diary analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies.

Barr R., Danziger C., Hilliard M.E., Andolina C., & Ruskis, J (2010). Amount, content and context of infant media exposure: a parental questionnaire and diary analysis. International Journal of Early Years Education, 18(2), 107-122.

Calvert, S. L., Rideout, V.J., Woolard, J.L., Barr, R.F., Strouse, G.A. (2005). Age, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Patterns in Early Computer Use: A National Survey. American Behavioral Scientist, 48

Parent-child interactions during media exposure

Fidler A.E., Zack E., Barr R. (2010). Television viewing patterns in 6- to 18- Month-Olds: The role of caregiver – Infant Interactional Quality. Infancy, 13, 30-56.

Lauricella A.R., Barr R.F. & Calvert S.L. (2009). Emerging computer skills: Influences of young children’s executive functioning abilities and parental scaffolding. Journal of Children and Media, 3(3), 217-233.

Barr R., Zack E., Garcia A., Muentener P., (2008). Infants’ attention and responsiveness to television increases with prior exposure and parental interaction. Infancy, 13(1), 30-56.

Baby Elmo Program

Brito N., Barr R., Rodriguez J., & Shauffer C. (2012). Developing an Effective Intervention for Incarcerated Teen Fathers: The Baby Elmo Program. Zero to Three, 32(5), 26-32.

Barr R., Brito N., Zocca J., Reina S., Rodriguez J., Shauffer C. (2011). The baby elmo program: Improving teen father-child interactions within juvenile justice facilities. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(9), 1555-1562.